May. 8, 2022





The sea was shaken, and the earth trembled when the Archangel Michael came down from heaven. Alleluia.


Whilst John saw the sacred mystery, Michael the Archangel sounded the trumpet: Pardon us, O Lord our God, who openest the book, and breakest the seals. Alleluia.



Holy Church tells us of the glories of St. Michael in several portions of the Liturgy; but particularly in the following Responsory and Antiphons, taken from to-day's Office.

℟. This is Michael the Archangel, the chief of the Angelic host:
*He repays, by blessings, the honour shown him by the Faithful; and his prayer leads us to the kingdom of heaven, alleluia.

℣. The Archangel Michael is set over Paradise, and is honoured by the citizens of heaven.
*He repays, by blessings, the honour shown him by the Faithful; and his prayer leads us to the kingdom of heaven, alleluia.

Ant. The Archangel Michael came with a multitude of Angels; God confided unto him the souls of the Saints, that he might lead them to the Paradise of bliss, alleluia.

Ant. Michael the Archangel came unto the aid of God's people; he stood as a help to the souls of the just, alleluia.

Ant. O most glorious Prince! Michael the Archangel! be mindful of us: here and in all places, ever pray for us to the Son of God. Alleluia, alleluia.


Prayer (Collect).

O God, who, by a wonderful order, hast regulated the employments of Angels and men; grant that those who are always ministering before thee in heaven, may defend our lives here on earth. Through our Lord Jesus Christ, Thy Son, who liveth and reigneth with Thee, in unity of the Holy Ghost, God, World without end. Amen.


David foretold that the Emmanuel's coming into this world would be greeted by the Angels, and that they would humbly adore him on his first appearing among us. (Ps, xcvi. 8; Heb, i. 6) We saw this prophecy fulfilled on the Night ever blessed, when Mary brought forth the Fruit of her womb. The Angelic choirs sang one of their heavenly hymns, which led the Shepherds to the Stable; we blended our songs with theirs, in homage to our Infant-God. The Resurrection of our Emmanuel was sure to be honoured by the presence of these blessed Spirits, who had witnessed, with amazement and trembling, the humiliations and cruelties of his Passion. The moment he passed through the barrier that imprisoned him in his Sepulchre, an Angel, with a face beaming as the sun, and garments white as snow, came and rolled back the Stone, and proclaimed to the holy Women, that He whom they were seeking had risen. When they entered the cave of the Sepulchre, two other Angels, clad in white robes, appeared to them, and repeated the tidings of Jesus' triumph.

Let us reverently honour these princely heralds of our deliverance, and consider how respectfully they cluster round Jesus their King and God, during the forty days after his Resurrection. They adore this glorified Humanity, which they are soon to see raised up to the highest heavens, and throned at the Father's right hand. They rejoice with us in the happiness brought to us by this Paschal Feast, which restores immortality to us in the person of our Risen Saviour; and thus, as St. Gregory told us a few days back, “it is the Feast of the Angels, because, by its recalling us to heaven, it fills up their number.” It was but right, therefore, that Paschal Time should devote one of its days to honouring the Angelic Spirits. (One day) previous to the Annunciation, we kept the feast of St. Gabriel, our Lady's honoured messenger; to-day, it is St. Michael, the Archangel and Prince of the heavenly host, that is to receive our love and praise. He himself selected this day, by appearing on it, and leaving us a pledge of his presence and protection.

The very name of Michael urges us to honour this glorious Spirit; it is a cry of enthusiasm and fidelity, for it signifies: “Who is like unto God?” Satan trembles at hearing this name, for it reminds him of the noble protest wherewith the bright Archangel answered the call of the rebel angels. Michael proved his strength and prowess when he fought the great battle in heaven. On that account, he was made the Guardian and Protector of God's people;—of the Jews first, and afterwards, of the Christian Church, for the Synagogue forfeited all her honours. Michael now watches over Jesus' Spouse, our mother; he supports her in her trials, and she wins no triumph in which he has not had some hand.

But, we are not to suppose, that the holy Archangel is so engaged in looking after the general interests of Christ's kingdom on earth, that he cannot attend to the prayers of each individual member of the Church. God has given him a compassionate love for men; and there is not a single soul that escapes his notice. He wields the sword in defence of the Spouse of Christ; he wars with the dragon, who is ever lying in wait for the Woman and her Child (Apoc, xii. 13);—but, at the same time, he is attentive to each one of us; for, after having confessed our sins to Almighty God, and to the Blessed Mary ever a Virgin, we acknowledge them likewise to Blessed Michael the Archangel, and beseech him to pray for us to the Lord our God.

He assists at every death-bed, for his special office is to receive the souls of the elect, on their quitting the flesh. He, with loving solicitude and princely bearing, presents them to the Light Eternal, and introduces them into the House of God's glory. It is holy Church herself that tells us, in the words of her Liturgy, of these prerogatives of the great Archangel. She teaches us, that he has been set over Paradise, and that God has given him the charge of leading to heaven the souls of them that are to be received there. On the Last Day, when our Risen Jesus is to appear on the clouds of heaven to judge mankind, Michael will have to fulfil a ministry of awful import;—he, with the rest of the Angels, will have to separate the good from the bad, all of whom will then have resumed their bodies in the general resurrection. Our Catholic Forefathers, in the Middle Ages, were fond of representing the holy Archangel engaged in this dread function. They put him standing at the foot of Jesus' judgment-seat, and holding a scale, in which he is weighing the souls of men and their works.

Devotion to St. Michael was sure to spread through the Church, especially after the worship of idols had been banished from the various countries, and men were no longer tempted to give divine honour to creatures. Constantine built in honour of the great Archangel a celebrated Church called Michaëlion; and at the time of Constantinople's falling under the power of the Turks, there were no less than fifteen Churches that bore the name of Saint Michael, either in the City or the suburbs. In other parts of Christendom, this devotion took root only by degrees; and it was by the holy Archangel's appearing to men, that the Faithful were prompted to have recourse to him. These apparitions were local, and for reasons which to us might seem of secondary importance: but God, who, from little causes, produces great effects, made use of them whereby to excite Christians to have confidence in their heavenly protector. The Greeks celebrate the apparition that took place at Chone, the ancient Colossa, in Phrygia. There was, in that city, a Church dedicated to St. Michael, and it was frequently visited by a holy man, named Archippus, who was violently persecuted by the pagans. One day, when Archippus was at his devotions in his favourite St. Michael's, his enemies resolved to destroy both him and the Church. Hard by, ran a brook which flowed into the river Lycus: this they turned off, and flooded the ground on which stood the Church. Suddenly, there appeared the Archangel St. Michael, holding a rod in his hand: the water immediately receded, and flowed into a deep gulf, near Colossa, where the Lycus empties itself and disappears. The date of this apparition is not certain, beyond its having occurred at the period when the pagans were numerous enough in Colossa to harass the Christians.

Another apparition, which encouraged devotion to St. Michael in Italy, took place on Mount Gargano, in Apulia; it is the one honoured by to-day's feast. A third happened on Mount Tomba, on the coast of Normandy: we will commemorate it on the 16th October.

The feast we are keeping to-day is not so solemn as the one of September 29th; it is, however, more exclusively in honour of St. Michael, inasmuch as the Autumn Feast includes all the choirs of the Angelic hierarchy.


The Roman Breviary gives us the following account of the apparition on Mount Gargano.

That the blessed Archangel Michael has often appeared to men, is attested both by the authority of sacred Scripture, and by the ancient tradition of the Saints. Hence, the memory of these apparitions is commemorated in divers places. As, heretofore, Michael was honoured by the Synagogue of the Jews as Guardian and Patron, so is he now by the Church of God. A celebrated apparition of the Archangel took place, under the pontificate of Gelasius 1st, in Apulia, on the top of Mount Gargano, at whose foot lies the town of Siponto.

A bull, belonging to a man who lived on the mountain, having strayed from the herd, was, after much searching, found hemmed fast in the mouth of a cave. One of its pursuers shot an arrow, with a view to rouse the animal by a wound; but the arrow rebounding, struck him that had sent it. This circumstance excited so much fear in the by-standers and in them that heard of it, that no one dared to go near the cave. The inhabitants of Siponto, therefore, consulted the Bishop; who answered, that in order to know God's will, they must spend three days in fasting and prayer.

At the end of the three days, the Archangel Michael intimated to the Bishop, that the place was under his protection, and that what had occurred was an indication of his will that God should be worshipped there, in honour of himself and the Angels. Whereupon, the Bishop repaired to the cave, together with his people. They found it like a Church in shape, and began to use it for the celebration of the divine service. Many miracles were afterwards wrought there. Not long after, Pope Boniface dedicated a Church in honour of St. Michael, in the great Circus of Rome, on the third of the Kalends of October (September 29th), the day on which the Church celebrates the memory of all the Angels. But to-day's feast is kept in commemoration of the apparition of Michael the Archangel.


The following Sequence is from the collection of the Monastery of Saint Gall, and was composed by the Monk Notker, in the eleventh century.


O King of heaven! in thy praise, may our whole assembly and choir now sound forth its instruments of sweet music, and sing its hymns to thee.

For this is the day of Michael's most glorious feast, which gladdens the whole earth with beautiful joy.

Thou dividest the Angels created by thee, into nine choirs; yet do they all thy bidding, when thou wiliest to demand angelic service.

They were the first creatures of thy hands; whereas we are thy last; yet were we made to thine image.

This triple division of the heavenly Spirits, according to their special offices, reveals to us the mysterious design of God.

First comes the Angelic army; then the phalanx of Archangels; then the host of the Principalities.

After these, follow the heavenly Virtues, the sweet-sounding Powers, the spiritual Dominations, the Thrones divine, the ethereal Cherubim, the burning Seraphim.

O Michael, Prince of the heavenly court! Gabriel, messenger of the Incarnate Word! Raphael, our guide through life! lead us to the company of the citizens of Paradise.

By you are fulfilled all the biddings of the Father, the Son, (who is his Wisdom,) and the co-equal Spirit,— the Three, One in essence,—the God to whom ye are the holy administering Spirits, thousands of thousands in number.

Ye stand in his Court, ten thousand times a hundred thousand; and into this same, the King, the Father of the Word, brought the hundredth sheep, and the tenth groat, that they might share in your bliss.

Ye in the high heavens, and we the elect flock on earth, give forth our tuneful praise on sweet-sounding harps.

Thus after Michael's glorious battles, may our incense, when set on the golden altar, be acceptable to God;

Thus, when united in the same eternal glory, may we sing together our Alleluia!


How beautiful art thou, Michael, in thy heaven made armour, giving glory to the God, whose enemy thou overcamest! Thine humble and fervent eye is fixed on the throne of the Jehovah, whose rights thou defendedst, and who gave thee the victory. Thy sublime cry: “Who is like unto God?” roused the faithful legions, and became thy name and thy crown. It will remind us, for all eternity, of thy fidelity to our Creator, and thy triumph over the dragon. Meanwhile, we enjoy thy loving protection; we are thy happy clients.

Guardian Angel of Holy Church! now is the time for thee to exert all the might of thine arm. Satan is furious in his efforts against the noble Spouse of thy Master; brandish thy bright sword, and give battle to this implacable enemy. The Kingdom of Christ is shaken to its very foundations. Rome is in danger of seeing the Vicar of Christ dethroned within her walls. Is it, that the reign of the Man of Sin is about to be proclaimed on the earth? Are we near that Last Day, when, this guilty world having been destroyed by fire, thou art to exercise, in the name of the Sovereign Judge, the terrible office of separating the goats from the sheep?—If this earth is still to exist; if the mission of the Church is not yet completed; is it not time for thee, O Michael! to show the Dragon of hell, that he may not, with impunity, insult on this earth the God who created it, who redeemed it, and whose name is King of kings, and Lord of lords? The torrent of error and crime is unceasingly dragging the world to the brink of the precipice; save it, O glorious Archangel, by confounding the dark plots, which are laid for its destruction!

Thou, O Michael, art the Protector of our souls in their passage from time to eternity. During this present life, thine eye is upon our wants, and thine ear open to our prayers. Though awed by the brightness of thy glory, we love thee, dear Prince of heaven! and we live happy and contented beneath the shadow of thy wings. In a few days, or, at most, years, our holy Mother the Church, will be performing her last sacred rites over our lifeless remains; she will pray for us, to our Heavenly Father, that we may be delivered from the lion's mouth, and that the standard-bearer, St. Michael, may bring us into the holy light (Mass for the dead. The Offertory). Watch over us now, O holy Archangel, lest we should then not deserve thy protection. The Dragon is ever threatening us; he makes no secret of his wishing to devour us. Teach us, O Michael, to repeat thy beautiful words: “Who is like unto God?” God's honour, the rights he has over us, our obligation to be faithful to him, and serve him, and confess him as our Lord in all times and places,—oh, yes! the deep-rooted sentiment of all this must be our shield in our danger, and the armour wherewith, like thyself, we must fight and win the battle. But we want some of thy sturdy courage, which resulted from the love thou hadst within thee. Oh! pray for us, that we, too, may love this our common Lord and Master; then shall we be invincible. Satan cannot make head against a creature that is filled with the love of the great God.

This God created thee, O Michael! and thou lovedst him as thy Creator; but as to us, he not only created, he redeemed us, yea and at the price of his own Blood! What, then, should be the intensity of our love for him! Strengthen this love in our hearts; and since we are fighting under thy leadership, guide us, inspirit us; let thy look give us courage; ward off from us the blows of the enemy's sword. We venture to hope that thou wilt be present at our last moments, O standard-bearer of our salvation! In return for our tender devotion towards thee, deign to keep guard round our death-bed, cover it with thy shield. If the Dragon see the flash of thy sword, he will not dare to come near us. May our soul, on leaving the body, throw herself with affection into thine arms! Cast her not from thee, O holy Archangel, when she seeks to cling to thee; carry her to the judgment-seat, cover her beneath thy wings, calm her fears; and oh! may the Lord, thy Master, bid thee bear her speedily to the kingdom of eternal bliss!


St. Michael, the Archangel.

Almighty God displayeth the riches of his goodness, power, and glory in the production of his creatures, and in them he manifesteth his own perfections. The whole world is as it were one great temple, where the divine presence shines, as it did in the Jewish at the time of its dedication, in a visible glory. We owe to him a tribute of praise and thanksgiving for all his works, but more particularly for the noble and pure intelligences on whom he has stamped his own spiritual image in a more perfect manner. He hath enriched them with the treasures of his grace, and of spotless sanctity, and hath made them the immortal and blessed inhabitants of his heavenly kingdom. They are, by the perfection of their nature, superior to man (Heb, ii. 7; Ps, viii. 6), who seems to hold the lowest rank in the scale of rational beings, and to be the link between the spiritual and the material world; he being, by his body, allied to matter, and by his soul to the celestial intelligences. He is therefore in natural perfections essentially inferior and subordinate to those pure spirits; nevertheless, in grace he may surpass them; and the church assures us, that the Blessed Virgin transcends their highest Orders. Upon their creation, God placed them in a state of meriting; and, whilst Lucifer and his adherents fell by pride, and were changed into devils, the good spirits persevering in justice, were confirmed in grace, and crowned with glory.

It is manifest from the holy scriptures, that God is pleased to make frequent use of the ministry of the heavenly spirits in the dispensations of his providence in this world, and especially towards man. Hence the name of Angel, (which is not properly a denomination of nature, but office,) has been appropriated to them, especially to a certain Order among them. The fathers from the sacred oracles distinguish nine Orders of these holy spirits, –namely, the Seraphims, Cherubims, and Thrones; Dominations, Principalities, and Powers; Virtues, Archangels, and Angels (Ephes, i. 21; Col, i. 16). Though many think that the apostle hath not enumerated all the ranks of those noble beings. St. Gregory the Great, and the ancient author of the book, On the Celestial Hierarchy, commonly ascribed to St. Dionysius the Areopagite, divide these nine Orders into three hierarchies, and each of these again into three ranks. Each Order among them hath its characteristical perfections and functions, by which the spirits which compose it, in a particular manner, set forth and glorify some attribute of the Deity: one, his supreme dominion and power, another his strength; the Cherubims his omniscience or boundless knowledge, the Seraphims his infinite love. Archangels are those spirits whom God makes his ambassadors in the execution of his greatest designs. The angels he employs in his ordinary dispensations to men. Their numbers are exceeding great, they being represented in scripture by thousands of thousands, and ten thousand times ten thousand: and it is written in the book of Job, Is there any numbering of his soldiers? (Job, xxv. 3) These numberless armies of glorious spirits are the bright ornament of the heavenly Jerusalem. They are called by St. Clemens of Alexandria, The first-begotten of God. And by St. Sophronius, The living images and representatives of God. As a skilful architect, he polishes more those stones which he destines to a more noble rank, and to more excellent purposes.

The angels are all pure spirits; that is, they are uncompounded immaterial substances, or subsisting simple beings, which have no parts, as bodies and matter have. In them nothing is to be found of colour, shape, extension, or any other qualities of matter. They are, by a property of their nature, immortal, as every spirit is. For a simple entity, or what has no parts, can only perish by annihilation, which is a supernatural act of divine omnipotence, no less than creation. On the contrary, a body being compounded of parts, is naturally mortal; being obnoxious to continual vicissitudes, and liable to perish by a separation or dissolution of its parts. Hence the bodies of the elect, after the general resurrection, will be immortal only by a gift of grace. As in their nature, so in its properties and appendices do the angels surpass inferior creatures. Their subtilty, quickness of penetration, extensive knowledge and science in natural things, are undoubtedly perfect in proportion to the excellency of their beings, in as much as they are pure intelligences. It is no less certain that they enjoy the faculty of communicating to each other their thoughts and conceptions, which St. Paul calls the tongues of angels. Their discourse can only be intellectual, as Theodoret observes, but must on that account be the more perfect. The prophets frequently express it as a peculiar and distinguishing property of God alone, that he is the searcher of hearts; so that his all-seeing eye always penetrates into their most hidden recesses, and no creature can conceal any thing from Him, before whom all things are light. In what manner the angels communicate their thoughts or understand those of others, we are not able clearly to determine. St. Thomas and divines usually teach, with St. Gregory, that God speaks to his angels by interiorly discovering to them his will, and by inspiring them with a sweet inclination to execute all his orders; and that these pure spirits speak to one another by the interior desire or will of communicating their thoughts and sentiments. By whatever means the angels understand the language of their fellow spirits, by the like they may hear the desires of a human soul, such at least as are addressed to them, or which it concerns them to know. Our guardian angels may in an instant convey or intimate our concerns to spirits that are remote; and God also can immediately reveal our thoughts when he pleases to them. That they know our concerns, and by charity interest themselves in them, is certain, or there could not be joy in Heaven, and before the angels of God over one sinner doing penance (St. Luke, xv. 7-10). Even devils can suggest to our minds evil thoughts, paint in the imagination dangerous objects, frequently see the consent of the human heart, and accuse men at the divine tribunal. That spirits have a natural power of exerting their agency on bodies, is proved from several instances in holy writ, not only of good angels, but also of devils, when God doth not restrain their natural strength. Evil spirits slew the seven first incontinent husbands of Sara, hurled the swine into the lake, and carried Christ in the air. Angels have the power of moving or conveying themselves from place to place; in which they are swift even as our thought: and such is their activity, that it is not easy for us to conceive it. If light comes from the sun to our eye in seven minutes, it must travel 200,000 miles in a second. Yet this is corporeal motion, which essentially requires succession of time. But the motion of a spirit, from the highest heaven to the lowest point in the universe, is instantaneous.

This is an imperfect abstract of what divines deliver from the oracles of holy writ, concerning the nature and properties of the good spirits. But unspeakably more transcendent and more admirable are the noble spiritual endowments of grace, and the riches of immortal glory, with which they are adorned. They are the spotless ministers, who approach nearest to the throne of God; and in the contemplation of his infinite beauty, and incomprehensible perfections, drink plentifully of the fountain of his holy joy and love; pouring forth, with all their strength, without intermission, to eternity, a perfect spiritual homage of profound adoration and praise, to the glory of his holy name. Though in this imperfect state of human nature we can have but very weak notions of the transcendent powers and faculties of superior spiritual beings, revelation has, in part, supplied the defect, and drawn aside the veil, letting us into some knowledge of this immaterial world of spirits. The holy scripture accordingly admonishes us to watch and stand upon our guard against the malice and snares of the wicked apostate spirits, who, by their evil suggestions, endeavour to seduce and draw us into sin. It also assures us, that the good angels are often employed by God in ministering to us, and that they frequently lend us their friendly succours. It farther informs us, that when the material curtain of our body, which at present hides from our eyes the invisible spiritual world, shall be rent asunder, immediately a sudden torrent of light will break in upon us, and we shall see ourselves in the midst of those bright legions. The wicked indeed shall find themselves in darkness, under the arrest and tyranny of the accursed spirits, which were here their tempters, and will be hereafter their tormentors, and their companions in unquenchable flames. But a guard of holy angels will conduct the soul of every just man, like Lazarus, to the abodes of light, and it shall be associated to the millions of millions of happy spirits, being itself a kindred spirit.

Among the holy archangels, three are particularly distinguished in the holy writ: Ss. Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael. St. Michael, whom the church honours this day, was the prince of the faithful angels who opposed Lucifer and his associates in their revolt against God. Michael, in Hebrew, signifies, Who is like God? This was, as it were, his motto, when by humility he repressed the pride of that apostate angel (Apoc, xii. 7), and set up the standard against him. He continues to protect the saints from his assaults. When the body of Moses was ordered to be secretly buried, lest it should prove an occasion of idolatry or superstition to the Jews, who had been accustomed to see the superstitious practices of the Egyptians towards their dead princes and friends, the devil attempted to prevent the execution of the divine order, that he might insult the body, or make it an object of the people's sin. But St. Michael checked his insolence, not commanding him in his own name, but with humility intimating to him the command of God to desist (St. Jude. 9). As the devil is the sworn enemy of God's holy church, St. Michael is its special protector against his assaults and stratagems: in this quality he was the defender of the Jewish synagogue, as is gathered from Daniel (Dan, xii), and Zachary (Zac, i); and it appears from the most ancient books of the Rabbins, that he was always acknowledged such by the Hebrews; who even think he was the angel that conducted them into the promised land, and was the instrument or minister of God in giving them the law, and in other signal favours. This holy archangel has ever been honoured in the Christian church, under the same title as her guardian under God, and as the protector of the faithful; for God is pleased to employ the zeal and charity of the good angels and their leader against the malice of the devil. To thank his adorable goodness for this benefit of his merciful providence, is this festival instituted by the church in honour of the good angels: in which devotion she has been encouraged by several apparitions of this glorious archangel. Among others it is recorded, that St. Michael, in a vision, admonished the bishop of Siponto to build a church in his honour on Mount Gargano, now called Monte-de-Sant-Angelo, in the Capitanate, near Manfredonia, in the kingdom of Naples. This history is confirmed by Sigebert in his chronicle, and by the ancient tradition of the churches of that country, and is approved by the judicious critic Mabillon, who visited those places, and examined the records and monuments. This church was erected in the fifth century, and is a place of great devotion. When the emperor Otho III. had, contrary to his word, put to death for rebellion Crescentius, a Roman senator; being touched with remorse, he cast himself at the feet of St. Romuald, who in satisfaction for his crime, enjoined him to walk barefoot, on a penitential pilgrimage, to St Michael's on Mount Gargano: which penance he performed in 1002, as St Peter Damian relates. In France Aubert, bishop of Avranches, moved, it is said, by certain visions, built, in 708, a church in honour of St Michael, on a barren rock which hangs over the sea between Normandy and Britany. In the tenth age this collegiate, church was changed into a great Benedictin abbey. In imitation of this was the famous church of St Michael refounded in Cornwall, in the reign of William the conqueror, by William earl of Moreton, on a mountain which the tide encompasses. It is said by Borlace, the learned and accurate Antiquarian of Cornwall, that this church of St Michael was first built in the fifth century. The Greeks mention in their Menæa a famous apparition of St Michael at Chone, the ancient Colossæ in Phrygia. Many apparitions of good angels in favour of men are recorded both in the Old and New Testament. It is mentioned in particular of this special guardian and protector of the church, that in the persecution of Antichrist he will powerfully stand up in her defence: At that time shall Michael rise up, the great prince, who, standeth for the children of thy people (Dan, xii. 1). He is not only the protector of the church, but of every faithful soul. He defeated the devil by humility; we are enlisted in the same warfare. His arms were humility and ardent love of God; the same must be our weapons. We ought to regard this archangel as our leader under God: and, courageously resisting the devil in all his assaults, to cry out: Who can be compared to God?

Taken from: The Liturgical Year – The Paschal Time, Vol. II, Dublin, Edition 1871;
The Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints, Vol. V, 1821; and
The Divine Office for the use of the Laity, Volume II, 1806.


Holy Archangel Michael, defend us in battle, that we may not perish in the dreadful judgment. Alleluia.